SDRAM means Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory which is a type of solid state computer memory.
SDRAM has a synchronous interface, meaning that it waits for a clock signal before responding to its control inputs. It is synchronized with the computer's system bus, and thus with the processor. The clock is used to drive an internal finite state machine that pipelines incoming instructions. This allows the chip to have a more complex pattern of operation than DRAM which does not have synchronizing control circuits.