SGI Octane

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An SGI Octane2 (2000-2004)
An SGI Octane (1997-2000)

The SGI Octane (and the very similar SGI Octane2) are UNIX workstations marketed by SGI. Both are SMP-capable (up to 2 identical processors) workstations, originally based on the MIPS architecture R10000 processor. Newer Octanes are based on MIPS R12000 and R14000. Octane2 has four improvements compared to Octane. Octane2 has revised power supply, system-board and xbow. Octane2 also shipped with VPro graphics and supports all available VPro cards (V6, V8, V10 and V12). Later revision Octanes also included some of the improvements mentioned. The machines shared a codename "Racer" or "Speedracer" inside SGI.

The Octane was the direct successor to the SGI Indigo2, and itself was succeeded by the SGI Tezro, and its immediate sibling is the SGI O2. SGI withdrew the Octane2 from the price book on May 26 2004, and ceased Octane2 production on June 25th, 2004. Support for the Octane2 was withdrawn in June 2009.

System architecture overview

The Octane's system-board is designated as IP30. The system is based on SGI's Xtalk architecture. This means it does not use a system bus; instead it has a router Xbow that connects any two of its ports. One of the ports is used for the processor and memory subsystem, one is available for PCI (actually PCI-64) expansion and four are XIO slots (packet-based high-bandwidth bus, somewhat similar to HyperTransport). This makes it very similar to a single node of the SGI Origin 200 system.

The XIO is here and there bridged to PCI-64, using a chip named BRIDGE. The places where it happens include the system board (for the IOC3 multi-I/O chip, two ISP1040B SCSI controllers and RAD1 audio), MENET cards (four IOC3s) and the PCI cage (used for PCI cards in Octane). ARCS is provided as the boot firmware, similar to all contemporary SGI computer systems.


Octane.sys.module.dimm.banks.gif

Processors overview

Here's a table of processors that have been available for Octane series.

Processor: Cache: Single (MHz): Dual (MHz):
R10000SC 1MB 175, 195, 225, 250 175, 195, 225, 250
R12000SC 2MB 270, 300, 400 270, 300, 400
R12000SCA 2MB 360, 400 360, 400
R14000SCA 2MB 550, 600 550, 600

The Octane series has single and dual CPU modules. You cannot add a second CPU, so the only option is to replace the whole CPU module.

Memory subsystem

The Octane allows 256 MB to 8 GB of system memory, using proprietary 200-pin DIMMs. There are two system board revisions. The first revision (part number 030-0887-00x, usually distinguished by a black handle) only supports 2GB of RAM while the later one (part number 030-1467-001, with a silver handle) supports up to 8GB. The -0887 revision of the mainboard will work with all 32-128 MB DIMMS and the stacked variant of 256MB DIMMS, but not the later single-board version (SGI P/N 9010036). The memory subsystem has vast reserves of bandwidth that can be directly served by the Xbow router to any XIO card.

The Octane's memory controller is aptly named HEART. It acts as a controller between the processor, the memory (SDRAM) and the XIO bus.

Graphics subsystem

Graphics on the Octane are provided by a series of cards: SI, SI+T, SSI, MXI. These are updated XIO versions of Solid Impact (SI), High Impact (SI+T) and Maximum Impact (MXI) from the SGI Indigo2 that were internally designated by SGI as 'MARDIGRAS'. The boards were accelerated and reengineered with faster geometry engine and texture modules to create their new versions: SE, SE+T, SSE, MXE. The SI/SE provides 13.5MB of framebuffer memory while the SSE and MXE have a 27MB framebuffer. The '+T' indicates an additional high speed RDRAM texture board which gives 4MB of texture memory, which is practically indispensable, though quite expensive and fragile. The SI/SE+T has one texture board while the MXI/MXE has 2 texture boards, however, the 2 boards in the MXI/MXE do not double the available texture memory to the system. It just doubles the texture performance.

Later Octanes and Octane2s support the SGI VPro graphics board series, designated 'ODYSSEY'. The first VPro series cards were the V6 and V8. The main differentiator being that the V6 has 32MB of RAM (unlike the MARDI GRAS option, framebuffer memory and texture memory come from the same pool) and V8 having 128MB. Later, the V10 (32MB) and V12 (128MB) were introduced. The main difference with the new VPro V10/V12 series is that they had double the geometry performance of the older V6/V8. V6 and V10 can have up to 8MB RAM allocated to textures (2X more than the textured-enabled MARDIGRAS options), while V8 and V12 can have up to 108MB RAM used for textures.

The VPro graphics subsystem consists of an SGI proprietary chip set and associated software. The chip set consists of the buzz ASIC, pixel blaster and jammer (PB&J) ASIC, and associated SDRAM.

The buzz ASIC is a single-chip graphics pipeline. It operates at 251 MHz and contains on-chip SRAM. The buzz ASIC has three interfaces:

  • Host (16-bit, 400-MHz peer-to-peer XIO link)
  • SDRAM (The SDRAM is 32 MB (V6 or V10) or 128 MB (V8 or V12); the memory bus operates at half the speed of the buzz ASIC.)
  • PB&J ASIC

As with the MARDIGRAS boards, all VPro boards support OpenGL in hardware (MARDIGRAS is OpenGL 1.1 + SGI Extensions, while VPro upgraded support to OpenGL 1.2) and OpenGL ARB imaging extensions, allowing for hardware acceleration of numerous imaging operations at real-time rates.

IMPACT Series

Option: Improved Option: GEs:
Geometry Engines
REs:
Raster Engines
Texture:
Texture Modules
SI SE 1 1 none
SI+TRAM SE+TRAM 1 1 1
SSI SSE 2 2 none
MXI MXE 2 2 2

Note: Only cards with texture memory offer hardware accelerated texturing, however you can add hardware texturing to TRAMless card by adding TRAM modules to it.

VPro Series

Option: Colour: RAM: Texture Memory (up to) Geometry Speed
V6 48bit RGBA 32MB 8MB Original GE speed
V8 48bit RGBA 128MB 104MB Original GE speed
V10 48bit RGBA 32MB 8MB 2X Faster GE speed
V12 48bit RGBA 128MB 104MB 2X Faster GE speed


Compatibility: The V6/V8 boards have been shown to work with any XBow version, but the V10/V12 boards do appear to require an XBow 1.4 frontplane. The official VPro upgrade docs, including SGI's system requirements, can be found on TechPubs Forum threads on the topic can be found here.


OCTANE/MXI Graphics Board

Max.board.gif


OCTANE/SI With Texture Memory Option Board

Solid.board.w.tmez.gif


OCTANE/SI Graphics Board

Solid.impact.board.gif


OCTANE/SSI Graphics Board

Ss.board.gif


V6 V8 V10 V12 ... V Pro graphics board

Vpro-1.gif


Option boards

OCTANE Personal Video Option Board

Personal-video.gif

Replaces blank panel in slot D in the V Pro image.

VPro

General information

The VPro series (code name "Odyssey") is a a computer graphics architecture for SGI workstations. First released on the SGI Octane2, it was subsequently used on the SGI Fuel and SGI Tezro workstations. VPro provides some very advanced capabilities such as per-pixel lighting, also known as "phong shading", and 48-bit RGBA color.

There are currently four different VPro graphics board revisions, called: V6, V8, V10 and V12. The first series were the V6 and V8, with 32MB and 128MB of RAM respectively. The V10 and V12 had double the geometry performance of the older V6/V8, but were otherwise similar. The V6 and V10 can have up to 8MB RAM allocated to textures, while V8 and V12 can have up to 104MB RAM used for textures.

Vpro-1.gif

Features

  • "OpenGL on a chip"™ technology
  • Hardware implementation of specular shading with per-pixel normal interpolation (through the SGIX_fragment_lighting extension)
  • 48-bit (12-bit per component) RGBA
  • 96-bit hardware-accelerated accumulation buffer for depth of field, full-scene anti-aliasing, motion blurs and other effects
  • texture memory capacity 8MB (V6, V10) or 104MB (V8, V12), total memory 32MB (V6, V10) or 128MB (V8, V12)
  • Perspective-correct textures and colors
  • High-performance hardware clipping
Option: Color: RAM: Max. Texture Memory Geometry Speed
V6 48bit RGBA 32MB 8MB Original GE speed
V8 48bit RGBA 128MB 104MB Original GE speed
V10 48bit RGBA 32MB 8MB 2X Faster GE speed
V12 48bit RGBA 128MB 104MB 2X Faster GE speed

EEPROM information from forum topic

See also this and this topic.

EEPROM information
VPro Computer Part# EEPROM ID
V10 Fuel, old rev. 030_1725_00x ASTODYB
V10 Fuel, new rev. 030_1826_00x ASTODYV10
V12 Fuel 030_1726_00x ASTODY
V12 Fuel 030_1996_00x ASTODY
V12 Tezro 030_1884_00x ODY128B1_2
V12 Onyx350 InfinitePerformance 030_1909_00x ODY128B1_2

'AST' is for 'Asterix', the codename for Fuel. 'ODY' is short for Odyssey, the codename for VPro graphics.

Graphics subsystem

The VPro graphics subsystem consists of an SGI proprietary chip set and associated software. The chip set consists of the buzz ASIC, the pixel blaster and jammer (PB&J) ASIC, and associated SDRAM.

The buzz ASIC is a single-chip graphics pipeline. It operates at 251 MHz and contains on-chip SRAM. The buzz ASIC has three interfaces:

  • Host (16-bit, 400-MHz peer-to-peer XIO link)
  • SDRAM (The SDRAM is 32 MB (V6 or V10) or 128 MB (V8 or V12); the memory bus operates at half the speed of the buzz ASIC.)
  • PB&J ASIC

All VPro boards support the OpenGL ARB imaging extensions, allowing for hardware acceleration of numerous imaging operations at real-time rates.


V6/V8 Pixel Clock Issues

The first generation of VPro boards (V6 & V8) have a design flaw that prohibits graphics modes in much of what might otherwise be considered the normal range for SGI desktop systems:

  • Modes in the 109-193MHz range cannot be selected at all on V6/V8.
  • Modes that are close to the lower end of that range (like 1280x1024_59/60) are only allowed at 8 bytes/pixel framebuffer size and even at that setting some people reported display problems (noise, flickering).

Pertinent nekochan.net discussions about these issues can be found here and here.

VPro Display Resolutions

This table was taken from http://www.sgi.com/products/remarketed/octane2/display_resolutions.html

Display Resolutions
(V6, V8, V10, V12)
Additional V8/V10/V12 Display Resolutions Additional V10/V12 Resolutions (3, 4)
1920x1080 at 30Hz interlaced 1920x1200 at 60Hz 1920x1200 at 72Hz (for DCD Option)
1600x1024 at 83Hz (1) 1280x1024 at 100Hz (quad stereo, 21" monitor only) 1920x1200 at 60Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x1024 at 100Hz (quad stereo, 21" monitor only) 1920x1080 at 30Hz interlaced 1920x1080 at 72Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x1024 at 96Hz) (2) 1600x1200 at 75Hz 1920x1080 at 60Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x960 at 30Hz interlaced 1600x1200 at 72Hz 1920x1035 at 30Hz interlaced
1280x720 at 72Hz 1600x1200 at 75Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x720 at 60Hz 1600x1200at 72Hz (for DCD Option)
1024x768 at 75Hz 1600x1200 at 60Hz
1024x768 at 60Hz 1600x1200 at 60Hz (for DCD Option)
800x600 at 60Hz 1600x1024 at 83Hz (for DCD Option)
768x576 at 25Hz interlaced 1600x1024 at 60Hz (for DCD Option)
640x480 at 60Hz 1280x1024 at 85Hz
640x486 at 30Hz interlaced 1280x1024 at 75Hz
1280x1024 at 72Hz
1280x1024 at 66Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x1024 at 60Hz
1600x1024 at 60Hz (for DCD Option)
1280x1024 at 30Hz
1280x960 at 30Hz interlaced (for DCD Option)
1280x492 at 120Hz stereo (3, 5)
1024x768 at 96Hz stereo
800x600 at 60Hz
768x576 at 25Hz interlaced
640x486 at 30Hz interlaced
640x480 at 60Hz

1: 24" monitor recommended for correct aspect ratio
2: 1280x1024 at 60Hz (available with 8-byte frame buffer depths, supports 4-bit per component RGBA, double-buffered with Z)
3: Support for some resolutions requires installation of IRIX 6.5.10 or higher
4: Resolutions designated for the Dual Channel Display (DCD) Option on V12 only are in skew mode for timing compatibility; while the two displays can have different resolutions, they must run at the same refresh rate
5: 1280x492 at 114Hz available with V6 and V8



See Also

  • There is also some interesting information about V10 ERPOM disassembly in this forum topic.
  • A forum thread about the fair price of V12 boards lead to a discussion about the differences between V10 and V12... here

Audio subsystem

Audio hardware is standard; even without extensions they can support low-latency (3 ms input-to-output) audio streams. Alesis ADAT 8-channel, 24-bit optical ports are built-in, along with S/PDIF or AES/EBU optical and coaxial ports. This makes the Octane into a respectable digital audio workstation.

Case and expandability

The Octane cases are large (W×H×D: 30×40×35 cm) and heavy (25 kg), yet there are no internal 5.25" drive bays, so external CD-ROM drives must be connected if desired. Extensions include video I/O, audio I/O, networking, realtime video compression boards, and external storage options (through SCSI, Fibre-Channel or Firewire). Octanes can use standard PCI cards with optional PCI cardcage aka 'shoebox' (which provides 2-full length and 1 half-length 5V PCI-64 slots), or a PCI to XIO adaptor (known as a 'shoehorn' which provides a single 3.3/5V 64-bit PCI slot).

Older Octanes can be upgraded with VPro graphics. The VPro Upgrade Installation Guide from Silicon Graphics states that V10 and V12 graphics board require an XBow revision 1.4 and Cherokee power supply. VPro V6 and V8 require a Cherokee power supply; any XBow revision will work. However, some users in the field have found that any version of VPro graphics will work with any power supply and frontplane. (Other users disagree.)

There's an easy way to (usually) identify the difference between Cherokee (747 W) and older Lucent (623 W) power supplies. The mounting handle is silver on the Cherokee International manufactured power supplies while the original Lucent manufactured ones have black handles. Unfortunately, the handles can become damaged and are very easy to replace, not necessarily with the original color. Caveat emptor.

Single-CPU Octanes and Octane2's can be upgraded to dual-CPU models by replacing the complete CPU module. Again, the official statements are that certain mainboards are required for certain CPU modules but this doesn't appear to generally hold up in the real world. Perhaps the SGI stated requirements came from early revisions of the relevant parts but no one in the hobbyist or reseller communities has yet reported a case where the official requirements were accurate.

Octane skins come in three types. The original Octane has green skins with the original 'cube' logo. The later model Octanes have skins the same colour as the original but with Octane2-style lettering and logos. Octane2 systems have blue skins with the current 'sgi' logo.

I/O subsystem

Octane series supports Ultra Wide SCSI devices and has two SCSI controllers. System can have up to three internal 3.5" SCSI SCA devices. Octanes use special mounting sleds for the harddrives which are compatible with Origin 2000, Origin 200 and Onyx2. The system also has external Ultra Wide SCSI bus.

HEART

What is the HEART?

The aptly named HEART is the core of the Octane. It integrates a SDRAM memory controller, a XIO device, an interrupt controller and a processor bus interface for up to four R10000-class processors.

Access methods

The HEART can be accessed in two ways from the processor. The first one is through the PIU (Programmed I/O Unit) at 0xFF0000 in processor physical address space. The other one is at widget 8 in XIO address space. The only one way available to other XIO devices is through the widget interface, so the Interrupt Status Set register is mapped there at address 0x80.

Memory controller

The HEART contains a SDRAM memory controller with ECC. ECC errors are signaled to the CPUs by interrupts.

XIO bridge

The XIO bridge is one of the main functions of the HEART. There are three access windows defined for each XIO widget number. There is a window at 0x10000000+ W*0x1000000 for widget number W, a window at 0x800000000+W*0x80000000 and a window at 0x1000000000+W*0x1000000000.

Note that XIO accesses are deeply pipelined by default. Due to that fact, writing to any XIO widget may not have any effect for several hundred cycles. To guarantee finalization of all posted writes it is required to read the widget flush register.

The XIO bridge in HEART provides also some Flow Control features for two channels. They allow to schedule a hiwater IRQ for any given XIO register address. If the register is an input to a FIFO, as is the case with the IMPACT graphics board, exceeding a prescribed number of writes to this register would cause a FIFO hiwater condition. As you already know, the XIO writes are posted and not immediately executed. Catching the hiwater condition in the HEART and not in the card allows to trap it in a more reliable way.

Interrupt controller

The HEART interrupt controller is visible from the PIU as a set of registers: interrupt mask registers for all processors (IMR[0:3]), an interrupt status register (ISR) and ISR clear and set registers that allow atomic manipulation of the ISR.

The XIO side consists of a single register 0x80 that can accept either an atomic ISR bit set command or an atomic ISR bit clear command. These commands cause asserting and deasserting IP[7:2] bits in the CPUs whose IMRs contain the bit in question.

Timer

A small part of the HEART is a programmable interval timer, consisting of 24-bit COUNT and COMPARE registers. The IRQ can be delivered only to the IP6 bit, which is the highest-priority CPU interrupt except internal CPU timer and HEART error IRQs. The timer counts at 12.5 MHz, every 8th internal HEART cycle (1/4th of the XIO frequency).

MicroLAN

The HEART controls also the Number In a Can associated with processor modules. It features a standard SGI issue MicroLAN controller.

Available Operating Systems

The Octane was first supported by IRIX version 6.4 with IMPACT or "Mardi Gras" graphics (SI/SSI/MXI and later Enhanced versions). Support for VPro or "Odyssey" graphics in Octanes was introduced with IRIX 6.5.10 for V6/V8, and in IRIX 6.5.11 for V10/V12. (Drivers were released to support V10/V12 under 6.5.10.) All versions of IRIX through 6.5.30 include support for the Octane family machines.

Octane and Octane 2 are both supported by OpenBSD. Both single and dual CPU configurations are supported, however at this time there is no support for running X on the IMPACT or VPro framebuffers.

Linux runs on the Octane series, although the patch is quite experimental. Link to Linux/MIPS 2.6.12 kernel patch is available in the External Links section of the page. Both graphics versions are supported, and X Window System is available on the IMPACT series.


Parts compatibility between Octane and Octane2

Octane2 consists of different revisions of the Octane components, specifically a higher-wattage power supply, Xbow revision 1.4 in the frontplane, and an updated IP30 (part number 030-1467-XXX) The updated IP30 allows the use of higher-density memory modules (up to 8GB total RAM). The single-board 256MB DIMMs will not work in the older 030-0887-XXX mainboards, neither will the 512MB modules or any 1GB module.


Front plane LEDs

The LEDs are simply link status lights. There is actually seven LEDs:

BaseIO X
QA X X PCI Expansion
QD X X QB
QC X X Heart

The BaseIO and Heart are connected internally and are part of the IP30, so these will always be lit. The QA-QD refer to the quad module, which is labeled like this when facing the rear of the Octane:

QA | QB
-------
QC | QD

QA should always be lit as the first graphics card is installed in Quadrant A. The other LEDs will be lit depending on what XIO options are installed.

The PCI Expansion LED will be lit if there is a PCI shoebox installed.


Dallas NVRAM

The Octane and Octane2 use the Dallas DS1687-5 for a real-time clock function and a few hundred bytes of battery-backed RAM.


Hardware Aggregator

- SCSI HardDisks:

     1. SGI IBM DDRS-34560 (4GB, 7,200RPM)
        (SGI P/Ns 013-2435-001, 064-0089-001)
     2. SGI IBM DDRS-39130W S95D (9GB, 7,200RPM)
     3. IBM DRHS COMP IEC-950 (36GB, 7,200RPM)
     4. Seagate Cheetah ST336706LC (36GB, 10,000RPM)
     5. Seagate Cheetah ST173404lCV (73GB, 10,000RPM)
     6. Seagate ST373453LC (73GB, 15,000RPM)
        (Labeled "TotalStorage by IBM" IBM P/N 24P3733)


- SCSI -> ATAPI:

     1. ACARD AEC-7722 ATAPI/IDE device on LVD (80MB/sec) SCSI bus. 


- SCSI Cards:

- SCSI PCI Cards:

     1. QLogic QLA1240D (HVD)
     2. QLogic QLA12160 (LVD)


- Fibre Channel Cards:

- Fibre Channel PCI Cards:

     1. QLogic QLA2200


- FireWire (IEEE-1394) Cards:

- Network Cards:

- Network PCI Cards:

     1. SGI p/n 9210289 (3C996B-T-SGI1)
     2. Any Tigon3 cards should work with this hack, these include Compaq NC7770, 3Com 3c996B-T (needs the B)


- CD-ROM Drives:

- SCSI CD-ROM Drives:

     1. Toshiba TXM3401E1 (does audio cd's, but requires caddies)
     2. Plextor UltraPlex 40x


- CD-RW Drives:

- SCSI CD-RW Drives:

     1. Plextor CD-R PX-R820T 1.08
     2. Plextor Plexwriter 12/10/32
     3. Sony CRX145S 10x4x32
     4. Yamaha CRW4416SX 4x4x16
     5. Yamaha CRW6416SX 6x4x16
     6. Yamaha CRW8424SX 8x4x24
     7. Yamaha CRW2200SX 20x10x40


- DVD-ROM Drives:

- SCSI DVD-ROM Drives:

     1. Pioneer DVD-304S (bootable)
     2. Pioneer DVD-305S (bootable)


- DVD-R/RW:

- DVD-RAM Drives:

- SCSI DVD-RAM Drives:

     1. Matshita (Panasonic) LF-D291


- DAT/DDS:

     1. Archive Python 4324RP


- DAT/DDS2:

     1. Seagate CTD8000H-S (says ***octane option*** on the label)


- DAT/DDS3:

     1. HP C1537A DDS-3 Drive


- 3.5" Floppy Drives:

     1. Teac FD-235 HS


- Removable Drives:

     1. Imation LS-120 [SCSI]
     2. Iomega Zip 100 [SCSI]
     3. Iomega Zip 100 Plus [SCSI/Parallel]


- Magneto-Optical (MO) Drives:

     1. Fujitsu MCM3064SS
     2. Fujitsu MCM3130SS
     3. Fujitsu MCJ3230SS


A detailed bilingual guide by Diego A. De Giorgio [Generatrix] can be found here: The MOD/M.O.D. (Magneto Optical Drive) IRIX FAQ

- Scanners / Printers:

     1. Epson Perfection 636 [SCSI]


- Tablets:

     1. Wacom Intuos (serial interface)
     2. Wacom Intuos2 (serial interface)


- PCMCIA Card readers:

- SCSI PCMCIA Card readers:

     1. Adtron SDDS PC Card Drive [Caveat: You need to set the speed on the SCSI ID you're using to 5MB]


- Monitors [Sync-On-Green capable]

     1. Dell 2407WFP 1920x1200_60 V8 or V12 graphics (13w3>HD15 connection)
     2. Dell 2407WFP 1920x1200_60 V12 graphics w/DCD (DVI connection)
     3. Dell P991 (works with 13w3 adapter with pins pulled)
     4. SGI GDM-20D11 (standard 13w3 connection)
     5. SGI GDM-20E21 (standard 13w3 connection)
     6. Philips 170S (13w3>HD15 connection)
     7. Dell 2007WFP 1280x1024_60 on EMXI tested only (13w3>HD15 connection)
     8. LG Flatron L1732TQ 17" 1280x1024 (13w3>HD15 connection)


Note: Monitors on the O2 Hardware Aggregator should work on the Octane as well (though a MLA will be needed with the 1600SW)

- xDSL Modem/Router combos

     1. NogaNet TENDA TED8620R (Ethernet)



External links